Adverb: Definition and Classification with examples
An adverb is a word that modifies or qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb or any other word(s) or phrase(s) in a sentence; such as quickly, firmly, lightly, carefully, extremely, etc.
Example: The cyclist rides very fast.
Adverbs are divided into three main classes: Simple, Interrogative and Relative. There are different kinds of adverbs according to their functions in a sentence.
1) Simple Adverbs: These are subdivided into the following types:-
i) Adverb of Time: Indicates the time of an action, and answer the question ‘when’? Adverbs of time usually come at the end of a sentence or at the beginning of sentence.
Such as now, soon, still, then, today, yet, since, back, ago, already, before, after, recently, today, lately, tomorrow, once, someday, early, etc.
Example: Mr. Arif already finished the syllabus.
ii) Adverb of Manner: Expresses the manner of an action, and answer the question ‘How’?
Such as happily, slowly, quickly, carefully, loudly, easily, fast, bravely, hard, well, badly, etc.
Example: Mr. Arif is doing the job carefully.
iii) Adverb of Place: Indicates the place of an action, and answer the question ‘Where’? Adverbs of place usually follow the verb.
Such as here, there, up, down, in, out, by, hither, thither, where, anywhere, somewhere, everywhere, nowhere, etc.
Example: Mr. Arif loves to be here.
iv) Adverb of Degree or Quantity: Expresses quantity, and answer the question ‘How much/ How far/ to what extent’? Adverbs of Degree or Quantity come before the verb, adjective or adverb.
Such as extremely, fully, quite, almost, very much, too, a lot, totally, absolutely, fairly, hardly, etc.
Example: Mr. Arif is well enough to teach you grammar.
v) Adverb of Affirmation and negation: Indicate assertion and express the one’s reaction to question.
Example: Yes, Mr. Arif can do the work.
vi) Adverb of Frequency: Expresses the frequency of an action and, answers the question “How often”?
Such as never, ever, always, often, seldom, everyday, sometimes, usually, normally, frequently, rarely, hardly, scarcely, once a week, etc.
Example: Mr. Arif often goes to hometown.
vii) Adverb of reason: Expresses the reason and make the conclusion.
Such as hence, therefore, thence, etc.
Example: Mr. Arif, therefore, resigned from the job.
2) Interrogative Verbs: Those adverbs (when, where, why, how ) which are used to ask questions are interrogative adverbs. These again are subdivided into the following types:-
i) Interrogative Adverbs of Time: Whenwill Mr. Arif finish our class?
ii) Interrogative Adverbs of Place: Where does your sister live?
iii) Interrogative Adverbs of Manner: How did she reach the top?
iv) Interrogative Adverbs of Number: Howoften does he come to see you?
v) Interrogative Adverbs of Quantity: How much of his answer was correct?
vi) Interrogative Adverbs of Cause or Reason: Why did she cry?
3) Relatives Adverbs: The adverbs (when, where, why, how) join two sentences and relate or refer back to their antecedents. Sometimes the antecedent of a Relative Pronoun may be omitted and has to be understood. An antecedent comes before a pronoun. A pronoun and its antecedent must agree in gender and number.
For example: 1) I know the time when Mr. Arif comes. 2) I know when Mr, Arif comes.
Conjunctive Adverb: Conjunctive adverb is used to join two clauses together. Conjunctive Adverb joins two independent clauses with a semi-colon.
Such as also, finally, furthermore, consequently, hence, however, incidentally, indeed, instead, likewise, nevertheless, meanwhile, next, nonetheless, otherwise, then, still, thus, and therefore.
Example: Mr. Arif was waiting for half an hour; finally the team comes to the meeting place.